TC 205 Key References List

Click below to expand the lists

Introductory Material/Core theory/principles of design - LRFD, MFD, PBD, ULS/SLS
  • Anagnostopoulos, A. G., & Frank, R., (2010), EC7 : Eurocode 7 : an “ umbrella code ” its implementation , evolution and impact worldwide. 6th Greek Conference on Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, technical Chamber of Greece, Volos, 29/09-1/10 2010, 1–9
  • Koudelka, P., (2012a), Non-Conform View at Eurocode 7-1 and Its Calibration. 5th APS on Structural Reliability and Its Application – Sustainable Civil Infrastructures, Singapore, 23-25 May 2012. Proc. ISBN-13: 978-981-07-2218-0, ISBN-10: 981-07-2218-4 (eBook), Phoon K.K.- Beer M.-Quek S.T.-Pang S.D., Design,CRC & iTEK CMS Web Solutions,Singapore, pp.202-3,ps.6  
     
    The paper deals two problems of a theory of the Code.  Interaction between a handmade structure and touching soil/rock mass or behaviour of a solitary soil/rock mass are extraordinarily complex tasks of mechanics of which objects distinguish themselves by very complicated non-linear behaviour.  Generally in mechanics, it is well-known that an application of coefficients and factors for non-linear or the 2nd order analyses is incorrect.  Also, a principle of superposition is inapplicable for these analyses.  What it is very strange it is that an ordinary official geotechnical practice in Europe (EC 7-1) does not respect this basic principle of mechanics applying a statistical definition of characteristic value and material partial factors (probably B. Hansen 1953).  The application of any changes of real physical mass properties for inputs of the Ultimate Limit State Design of EC 7-1 appears to be a rejection of the principle of mechanics.  Further, a code theory of earth pressure appears also to be disadvantage, not very precise and involving risks for designers.  The paper presents concepts of possible solutions of the problems.
     
  • Koudelka, P., (2010a), Prospects of Design in Geotechnics XVth Danube-European Conference on Geotechnical Engineering 2010, 2nd- 4nd June 2010, Bratislava, Slovak Republic, Proc.ISBN 978-80-227-3279-6, J. Frankovská, J. Hulla, M. Ondrášik, P. Turček, Sess.2.#8, ps.19

    The Paper should be a contribution to the calibration of EC7-1 and evaluates the major used design procedures and some other aspects.
     
  • Ovesen, N. K., (1995), Eurocode 7 for geotechnical design, Proc Bengt B. Broms Symposium on Geotechnical Engineering, Singapore

    This is a statement of the position from which EC7 development started, laying out may of the underlying principles in a simple way
     
  • Simpson, B., (2012), Eurocode 7-fundamental issues and some implications for users, Keynote Lecture Proc Nordic Geotechnical Meeting 2012, DGF Bulletin 27 (pp. 1–24)

  • Simpson, B., (2000), Partial factors: where to apply them ? LSD 2000: International workshop on Limit State Design in Geotechnical Engineering, Melbourne, Australia, 18 November 2000, (November), 1–10

  • Simpson, B. (2007), Approaches to ULS design- The merits of Design Approach 1 in Eurocode 7, ISGSR2007 First International Symposium on Geotechnical Safety & Risk, Shanghai Tongji University, China (pp. 527–538)

    This paper argues for the advantages of EC7 DA1 for ULS design

  • Simpson, B., Morrison, P., Yasuda, S., Townsend, B., Gazetas, G. (2009), State of the art report: Analysis and design, Proc 17th Int Conf SMGE, Alexandria (pp. 2873–2929)

    This report compares all the different forms of limit state design codes from Europe, North Americana and Japan across the breadth of geotechnical engineering.  The familiar geotechnical problems of uncertain ground conditions and complex interactions of load with frictional materials are addressed and topics under debate are discussed. The paper also considers the performance based design of foundations.

  • Smith, C. C. (2012), Theoretical issues in Ultimate Limit State Design, Géotechnique Letters2(4), pp205–208, doi:10.1680/geolett.12.00048

    In this paper the author proposes a fundamental theoretical framework for undertaking ultimate limit state design based on the use perturbing forces and  an interaction diagram or yield surface. He gives clarity as to how calculations should be carried out and removes ambiguity about factoring actions not in the direction of the perturbing force
Geotechnical Design Codes and Manuals - History of geotechnical design (where did the numbers come from?)
  • Anagnostopoulos, A. G., & Frank, R., (2010), EC7 : Eurocode 7: an “ umbrella code ” its implementation , evolution and impact worldwide. 6th Greek Conference on Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, technical Chamber of Greece, Volos, 29/09-1/10 2010, 1–9
  • Brinch Hansen, J. (1956). Limit design and safety factors in soil mechanics. Bulletin No 1, Danish Geotechnical Institute, Copenhagen (in Danish with summary in English

    Brinch Hansen was the first person to use the words “limit design” in a geotechnical context. He described limit designs in the following way ‘in the design of any structure two separate analyses should in principle be made: one for determining the safety against failure and another for determining the deformations under the actual working conditions’. He linked the limit design concept closely to the concept of partial factors and introduced the use of partial factors for geotechnical designs. This was before partial factors were used for the design of structures.
  • Institution of Structural Engineers, (1955), Report on Structural Safety, The Structural Engineer, London, (33), pp141–149

    This is a report by a committee set up by the Institution of Structural Engineers, London to report on safety in structural design. In its report, the Committee noted that ‘the main body of evidence regarding the safety of a structure … will usually take the form of design calculations’  and noted that ‘two particular ratios should dominate the design calculations: The ratio of the ultimate load to the appropriate working load, known as the ultimate load factor

    The ratio of the limiting load to the appropriate working load, known as the limiting load factor’
  • Meyerhof, G.G., (1282), Limit states design in geotechnical engineering, Structural Safety, Elsevier, Amsterdam, (1), 67–71

    In this paper, Meyerhof outlined the ultimate and serviceability limit states in geotechnical engineering. He proposed magnitudes for total and partial safety factors in relation to the reliability of the soil and loading conditions and the probability and seriousness of failure during its service life.  He also treated the serviceability of structures and foundations on the basis of empirical damage criteria related to relative rotations and deflection ratios of foundations supporting different types of buildings and structures. He further developed this in the subsequent lecture in 1994
     
  • Meyerhof, G.G., (1994), Evolution of Safety Factors and Geotechnical Limit State Design The Second Spencer J. Buchanan Lecture, Texas A&M University
     
  • Orr, T.L.L., (2008), The Story of Eurocode 7, Spirit of Krebs Ovesen Session-Challenges in geotechnical engineering, Bulletin 23, Danish Geotechnical Society, pp41–58

    This chapter outlined how Eurocode 7 was developed, starting from the initial offer by Professor Kevin Nash in 1980 to the European Commission for the ISSMGE to prepare a draft of Eurocode 7, going through the various drafts of Eurocode 7, the committees involved, the difficulties they encountered, until the eventual unanimous vote of approval for Eurocode 7 and its publication as EN 1997-1 in 2004.

  • Orr, T.L.L. (2012), Codes and Standards and their Relevance, ICE Manual of Geotechnical Engineering, Eds Burland J., Skinner H. and Brown M., ICE Publishing, London, ISBN 978-0-7277-5707-4, Vol. 1, Chapter 10, pp105–124

    This chapter examines the development of geotechnical standards and their role in geotechnical design. The reasons why geotechnical and structural codes differ is considered. How the safety elements in the Eurocode limit state design framework are adopted in Eurocode 7 for geotechnical design is explained using the geotechnical design triangle.  The raft of associated ISO and CEN standards for geotechnical tests and the execution of geotechnical work are listed.

  • Orr, T.L.L., (2008), Eurocode 7 and Geotechnical Models, Von der Forschung zur Praxis, Mitteilung 61, Instituts fur Geotechnik, Stuttgart, ed. P.A. Vermeer, pp187–208

    In this chapter, the origin of all the calculation models in Eurocode 7 and how their status has changed within the code, from the first draft of Eurocode 7 through to the standard version, EN 1997-1:2004, is traced and explained

  • Ovesen, N. K., (1995), Eurocode 7 for geotechnical design, Proc Bengt B. Broms Symposium on Geotechnical Engineering, Singapore

    This is a statement of the position from which EC7 development started, laying out may of the underlying principles in a simple way

  • Simpson B, Morrison P, Yasuda S, Townsend B and Gasetas G (2009) State of the Art    Report: Analysis and Design, Proc. International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering, Alexandria, 2008, ed. Hamza H, Shahien M and El-Mossallamy Y,  IOP Press Netherlands, 4:2873-2929

    This report compares all the different forms of limit state design codes from Europe, North Americana and Japan across the breadth of geotechnical engineering.  The familiar geotechnical problems of uncertain ground conditions and complex interactions of load with frictional materials are addressed and topics under debate are discussed. The paper also considers the performance based design of foundations.

  • The Danish Geotechnical Institute, (1978), Code of practice for Foundation Engineering, Bulletin No. 32, Danish Geotechnical Institute, Copenhagen

    This is an English translation of the Danish geotechnical design standard that came into force in 1977. It was used as a model for Eurocode 7 and has partial factors for material parameters, resistances and loads which are a function of the combination of loads. For example, for normal load conditions, the partial factor on tanf’ in this code is 1.2
Bearing Capacity
  • Martin. C.,  ABC software (free download from http://www.eng.ox.ac.uk/civil/people/cmm/software)

    The software provides fast, accurate calculation of plane strain and axisymmetric bearing capacities for surface footings using method of characteristics. It can vary: c, phi, linear variation of c with depth, unit weight, surcharge, smooth or rough footings, footing width. More accurate than using Nc, Nq, and Ngamma factors for plastic solutions.
Deep Foundations (Piles)
  • Bond, A.J., Simpson, B., (2010), Pile design to Eurocode 7 and the UK National Annex, Part 2: UK National Annex, Ground Engineering, vol. 43, no 1, Jan 2010, pp28-31, London: Emap Inform.

  • Bond, A.J, Simpson, B. (2009), Pile design to Eurocode 7 and the UK National Annex, Part 1: Eurocode 7, Ground Engineering, vol. 42, no 12, Dec 2009, pp27-31, London: Emap Inform.

  • Recommendations on Piling (2013), edited by German Society for Geotechnics, ISBN: 978-3-433-03018-9, Ernst & Sohn, Berlin
    See http://eu.wiley.com/WileyCDA/WileyTitle/productCd-3433030189.html for content. In short form:

    This book provides an overview of piling systems and their application. It describes design and construction of piled foundations (single piles, pile groups and grids) based on Eurocode 7 and DIN 1054 edition 2010 following the specific German design methodologies as well as the European construction codes DIN EN 1536 (Bored piles), DIN EN 12699 (Displacement piles) and DIN EN 14199 (Micropiles). The book e.g. covers the determination of pile resistances from static and dynamic pile load tests as well as from experience values for various piling systems, the performance of static and dynamic load and integrity tests, the load-bearing behaviour and its verification for piles under cyclic, dynamic and impact loading e.g. for offshore wind turbines.

    The book has been published by the Piling working group of the German Society for Geotechnics (DGGT) with members representing clients, construction industry, research and administrations. The recommendations are considered as rules of technology and are usually approved by the building authorities as a supplement to available codes and standards.
Spread Foundations
  • Simpson, B. (2007), Approaches to ULS design- The merits of Design Approach 1 in Eurocode 7, ISGSR2007 First International Symposium on Geotechnical Safety & Risk, Shanghai Tongji University, China (pp. 527–538)

    This paper argues for the advantages of EC7 DA1 for ULS design
Retaining Structures
  • Bauduin, C., De Vos, M., & Simpson, B. (2000), Some Considerations on the Use of Finite Element Methods in Ultimate Limit State Design, LSD 2000: International workshop on Limit State Design in Geotechnical Engineering, Melbourne, Australia, 18 November 2000, (November), 1–16.
  • Bauduin, C., De Vos, M., & Frank, R., (2002), ULS and SLS design of embedded walls according to Eurocode 7 Calcul aux ELU et ELS d ’ un mur encastré selon l ’ Eurocode 7. Proc XIII ECSMGE, Vanicek et al. (eds), CGtS, Prague, ISBN 80-86769-01-1, 2, 41–46
  • Heibaum, M., & Herten, M., (2009), Geotechnical verifications using the finite-element method? Bautechnik, 86(S1), 7–15. doi:10.1002/bate.200910037
  • Lees, A. S., & Perdikou, S. (2010). Embedded cantilever retaining wall ULS design by FEA in accordance with EN 1997-1. Numerical Methods in Geotechnical Engineering-Benz & Nordal (eds), Taylor & Francis Group, London, ISBN 978-0-415-59239-0, 941–946
  • Schweiger, H. F. (2005). Application of FEM to ULS design ( Eurocodes ) in surface and near surface geotechnical structures. Proc 11th Int Conf Computer Methods and Advances in Geomechanics (G. Barla, M. Barla eds.), Patron editore, Bologna, 4(2000), 419–420
  • Simpson, B., Hocombe, T., (2010), Implications of modern design codes for earth retaining structures, Proc ER2010, ASCE Earth Retention Conference 3, Seattle, August 2010 (pp. 786–803)

    This paper considers the use of Eurocode 7 for design of retaining structures, comparing AASHTO designs.  Use of FE analysis for ULS design is also discussed.
     
  • Recommendations of the Committee for Waterfront Structures: Harbours and Waterways, Translation of the 10th German Edition, edited by German Society for Geotechnics, ISBN: 978-3-433-60144-0
    See http://eu.wiley.com/WileyCDA/WileyTitle/productCd-3433601445.html for content. In short form:

    This book describes design and construction principles of waterfront structures and their components following the Limit State Design concept according to Eurocode 7 and the respective German DIN-standards. It deals e.g. with active and passive earth pressures, water levels, water pressure and drainage, ship dimensions and loads on waterfront structures, configuration of cross-section and equipment for waterfront structures, earthwork and dredging, sheet piling structures, anchor piles and anchors, waterfront structures, piled structures, embankments, dolphins etc.

    This book has been published by the Committee for Waterfront Structures of the Society for Harbour Engineering and also of the German Society for Geotechnics with members representing clients, construction industry, research and administrations. The recommendations are considered as rules of technology and are usually approved by the building authorities as a supplement to available codes and standards.

    It has to be noted that the available English translation does not represent the latest edition of the German version.
Anchors, Slopes and Embankments, Reinforced soils
Water pressures - Factoring of water pressures
  • Simpson, B., Vogt, N., Van Seters, A. J. (2011), Geotechnical safety in relation to water pressures, Proc 3rd Int Symposium on Geotechnical Safety and Risk, Munich (pp. 501–517)

    The paper includes a discussion of means by which safety can be ensured for design situations dominated by water pressure. By considering alternative approaches, it is shown that some may lead to anomalous results.  It is concluded that generally factoring of water pressures is to be avoided.
  • Recommendations of the Committee for Waterfront Structures: Harbours and Waterways, Translation of the 10th German Edition, edited by German Society for Geotechnics, ISBN: 978-3-433-60144-0
    See http://eu.wiley.com/WileyCDA/WileyTitle/productCd-3433601445.html for content. In short form:

    This book describes design and construction principles of waterfront structures and their components following the Limit State Design concept according to Eurocode 7 and the respective German DIN-standards. It deals e.g. with active and passive earth pressures, water levels, water pressure and drainage, ship dimensions and loads on waterfront structures, configuration of cross-section and equipment for waterfront structures, earthwork and dredging, sheet piling structures, anchor piles and anchors, waterfront structures, piled structures, embankments, dolphins etc.

    This book has been published by the Committee for Waterfront Structures of the Society for Harbour Engineering and also of the German Society for Geotechnics with members representing clients, construction industry, research and administrations. The recommendations are considered as rules of technology and are usually approved by the building authorities as a supplement to available codes and standards.

    It has to be noted that the available English translation does not represent the latest edition of the German version.
     
Seismic Design/Liquefaction
ULS calculation models

      - simple

     -  Elasto-plastic FE

  • Simpson, B., Hocombe, T., (2010), Implications of modern design codes for earth retaining structures, Proc ER2010, ASCE Earth Retention Conference 3, Seattle, August 2010 (pp. 786–803)


      - Computational Limit Analysis

  • Smith, C.C., Gilbert, M. (2011), Ultimate Limit State design to Eurocode 7 using numerical methods Part I: methodology and theory, Ground Engineering, (October), pp25–30
  • Smith, C.C., Gilbert, M. (2011), Ultimate Limit State design to Eurocode 7 using numerical methods Part II: proposed design procedure and application, Ground Engineering, (November), pp24–29

    In this paper the authors describe how ULS design to Eurocode 7 can be carried out using Computational Limit Analysis methods. The challenges of using Action/Resistance factor methods with numerical methods are highlighted while a solution using perturbing forces is proposed
     
  • Smith, C.C., Cubrinovski, M., (2011), Pseudo-static limit analysis by discontinuity layout optimisation: Application to seismic analysis of retaining walls. Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering, 31(10), pp1311–1323. doi:10.1016/j.soildyn.2011.03.014

    The authors describe the application of Computational Limit Analysis (Discontinuity Layout Optimization) to pseudo-static analysis problems. The paper covers pseudo static earth pressures, wall and soil analysis (including overturning) and a discussion of the modelling of seismic water pressures in a limit analysis framework.

      - Discrete models

SLS Serviceability calculation models


      - continuum/ Elasto-plastic FE

  • Simpson, B., Hocombe, T., (2010), Implications of modern design codes for earth retaining structures, Proc ER2010, ASCE Earth Retention Conference 3, Seattle, August 2010 (pp. 786–803)

    This paper considers the use of Eurocode 7 for design of retaining structures, comparing AASHTO designs.  Use of FE analysis for ULS design is also discussed.


      - simple

      - mobilised strength design

  • Osman, A.S., Bolton, M.D., (2005), Simple plasticity-based prediction of the undrained settlement of shallow circular foundations on clay, Géotechnique,55(6), pp435–447

    In this paper a description of the mobilised strength design (MSD) approach for estimating settlement in the context of a circular foundation is given.
     
  • Osman, A.S., White, D.J., Britto, A.M., Bolton, M.D., (2007), Simple prediction of the undrained displacement of a circular surface foundation on non-linear soil,Géotechnique57(9), pp729–737

    Comparison of simple elastic based and plastic based (MSD) methods of estimating settlements with non-linear FE models


      - Discrete models

    Numerical methods

  • Bauduin, C., De Vos, M., & Simpson, B., (2000), Some Considerations on the Use of Finite Element Methods in Ultimate Limit State Design, LSD 2000: International workshop on Limit State Design in Geotechnical Engineering, Melbourne, Australia, 18 November 2000, (November), 1–16
  • Bauduin, C., De Vos, M., & Frank, R., (2002), ULS and SLS design of embedded walls according to Eurocode 7 Calcul aux ELU et ELS d ’ un mur encastré selon l ’ Eurocode 7. Proc XIII ECSMGE, Vanicek et al. (eds), CGtS, Prague, ISBN 80-86769-01-12, 41–46.
     
  • Heibaum, M., Herten, M., (2009), Geotechnical verifications using the finite-element method? Bautechnik86(S1), 7–15 doi:10.1002/bate.200910037
     
  • Koudelka, P., (2011b), Risks of analyses with lateral earth pressure load, 11thIC on Application of Statistics in Civil Engineering, Zurich, 1-4 August 2011. Proc. ISBN 978-0-415-66986-3 (Hbk), 978-0-20314479-4 (eBook), Taylor & Franicis Group, London,UK, pp.842-3,ps. 

    The paper presents results of a general comparative numerical analysis of earth pressure according to EC 7-1 using an statistical evaluation of the soil property database “ITAM 2009”
     
  • Lees, A. S., & Perdikou, S., (2010), Embedded cantilever retaining wall ULS design by FEA in accordance with EN 1997-1. Numerical Methods in Geotechnical Engineering-Benz & Nordal (eds), Taylor & Francis Group, London, ISBN 978-0-415-59239-0, 941–946

  • Schweiger, H.F., (2010), Numerical analysis of deep excavations and tunnels in accordance with EC7 design approaches. Proc. Int Conference on Geotechnical Challenges in Megacities (Petrukhin, Ulitsky, Kolybin, Lisyuk, Kholmyansky eds), Moskau, 7-10/06/2010 (pp. 206–217)

  • Schweiger, H. F. (2005). Application of FEM to ULS design ( Eurocodes ) in surface and near surface geotechnical structures. Proc 11th Int Conf Computer Methods and Advances in Geomechanics (G. Barla, M. Barla eds.), Patron editore, Bologna4(2000), 419–420

  • Simpson, B., Hocombe, T., (2010), Implications of modern design codes for earth retaining structures, Proc ER2010, ASCE Earth Retention Conference 3, Seattle, August 2010 (pp. 786–803)

    This paper considers the use of Eurocode 7 for design of retaining structures, comparing AASHTO designs.  Use of FE analysis for ULS design is also discussed.
Site Investigation/characterisation
  • Bond, A.J., (2011), A procedure for determining the characteristic value of a geotechnical parameter, Proc 3rd Int Symposium on Geotechnical Safety & Risk, Munich
     
  • Koudelka, P., (2011c), Shear strength variability of sandy and fine-grained soils. 11th IC on Application of Statistics in Civil Engineering, Zurich, 1-4 August 2011. Proc. ISBN 978-0-415-66986-3 (Hbk), 978-0-20314479-4 (eBook), Taylor & Franicis Group, London,UK, pp.881-2 ,ps. 

    The paper brings summed data of the database “ITAM 2009” and deals with an statistical analysis of the single soil groups.

  • Schneider, H.R., (1995), Determination of characteristic soil properties, Geotechnical Engineering for Transportation Infrastructure, Barends et al. eds, Balkema, Rotterdam, 1, 273–281

    A simple and practical approach to using statistics in deriving characteristic values of soil properties from test results

  • Simpson, B., (2011), Reliability in geotechnical design-some fundamentals, Proc 3rd Int Symposium on Geotechnical Safety & Risk, Munich

    A review of critical issues in achieving reliable geotechnical designs, leading to consideration of whether probabilistic calculations could be helpful
Risk Management
  • Phoon, K.K., (2004), Towards reliability-based design for geotechnical engineering, Special Lecture for Korean Geotechnical Society, Seoul, 9 July 2004 (Vol. 2004, pp. 1–23).

  • Simpson, B., (2011), Reliability in geotechnical design-some fundamentals, Proc 3rd Int Symposium on Geotechnical Safety & Risk, Munich

    A review of critical issues in achieving reliable geotechnical designs, leading to consideration of whether probabilistic calculations could be helpful

  • Whitman, R.V., (2000), Oganizing and Evaluating Uncertainty in Geotechnical Engineering, Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, (July), 583–593.
Rock Mechanics
Ground improvement
Tunnelling
  • Cheung, K., West, K., Yeow, H., & Simpson, B., (2010), Do Eurocodes make a difference ? Geotechnics and Tunnelling, 3(1), 35–47
     
  • Schweiger, H.F., (2010), Numerical analysis of deep excavations and tunnels in accordance with EC7 design approaches. Proc. Int Conference on Geotechnical Challenges in Megacities (Petrukhin, Ulitsky, Kolybin, Lisyuk, Kholmyansky eds), Moskau, 7-10/06/2010 (pp. 206–217)
Waterfront Structures
  • Recommendations of the Committee for Waterfront Structures: Harbours and Waterways, Translation of the 10th German Edition, edited by German Society for Geotechnics, ISBN: 978-3-433-60144-0
    See http://eu.wiley.com/WileyCDA/WileyTitle/productCd-3433601445.html for content. In short form:

    This book describes design and construction principles of waterfront structures and their components following the Limit State Design concept according to Eurocode 7 and the respective German DIN-standards. It deals e.g. with active and passive earth pressures, water levels, water pressure and drainage, ship dimensions and loads on waterfront structures, configuration of cross-section and equipment for waterfront structures, earthwork and dredging, sheet piling structures, anchor piles and anchors, waterfront structures, piled structures, embankments, dolphins etc.

    This book has been published by the Committee for Waterfront Structures of the Society for Harbour Engineering and also of the German Society for Geotechnics with members representing clients, construction industry, research and administrations. The recommendations are considered as rules of technology and are usually approved by the building authorities as a supplement to available codes and standards.

    It has to be noted that the available English translation does not represent the latest edition of the German version.